Episode 195: Why does it get so dusky all of a sudden?
Dusky sharks are among the largest Carcharhinus species with the most prolonged gestation period of them all: 2 years. Due to that long period, reproduction is slow, and mating occurs only every three years, and should it not happen, a female can fertilize her eggs due to sperm storage. Insight into the life of this remarkable species is given.
Click here: Episode 195.
Episode 194: A fish, a shark, a ray? What is it?
If it has a saw, it is either a sawfish or a sawshark. But is a sawfish a bony fish? Then there is the guitarfish, the same problem, what is that? As with most animal species, knowing a few features makes it easy to understand what is what.
Click here: Episode 194.
Episode 193: How about those power plants
Rumor has it that shark bites occur more often around power plants, seemingly because of the release of warm cooling waters. Although the idea is tempting that this brings in more sharks during colder water temperatures, the connection between a higher water temperature around the plants and an increase of bites cannot be made.
Click here: Episode 193.
Episode 192: On bite infection
Sharks have a palette of bacteria in their mouths, which can get transferred into a wound during a bite. Still, with over the counter antibiotics, an infection can likely be controlled. Still, a medical doctor should be consulted. But then there is also MRSA, how about those bacteria?
Click here: Episode 192.
Episode 191: It happened, now what do you do?
There is glaring ignorance of what to do underwater when an incident with a shark happened. How to read the situation, the wound, the victim, and then proceed accordingly? The only answer is to learn how to act in such a case. Without having participated in such a workshop, you are likely doomed.
Click here: Episode 191.
Episode 190: What’s next? Shark intestines?
The latest suggestion to go after sharks is using their livers to produce biodiesel. Proponents talk about that there would be less waste when sharks get finned, but the truth is that more sharks would get killed because of the livers and its demand. One should not try to utilize more parts of a shark but look for solutions to not kill them in the first place.
Click here: Episode 190.
Episode 189: We should give nurses more creditEpisode 188: Réunion, we have a problem
One of the most underrated shark species out there is the nurse shark. A mighty powerful and intelligent animal to interact with. Hardly any other shark species offer so many intriguing features as this one.
Click here: Episode 189.
Episode 188: Réunion, we have a problem
Several years past since the island of Réunion suddenly suffered an increase in shark bites that led to chaos and a massive drop in watersport oriented tourism. The understandable but still rather short-sighted reaction was to shut down beaches and keep them closed. So far, paid research has not given any promising lead to explain what happened. Why not? Because the answer does not lay in migration patterns of the local bull and tiger sharks, and their seasonal increase in numbers.
Click here: Episode 188.
Episode 187: Sharks like artificial structures
Buoys, oil platforms, shipwrecks, and other human-built structures attract marine animal life and eventually sharks, as well. Be it for protection, food, or pure curiosity, animals find their niche around and within them for a variety of reasons.
Click here: Episode 187.
Episode 186: Is there a difference between a zebra and a leopard?
The leopard shark is a very distinctive shark species along the West coast of North America. Although very common, there are still many question marks about their biology and behavior. Once you start researching the internet or observing this species in the water, it gets intriguing very quickly.
Click here: Episode 186.
Episode 185: Surfers play in two worlds
As with some other watersport activities, surfing is part of two environments, water, and air. For any shark, this boundary is intriguing and strange at the same time. The more a surfer is aware of the limitations while stuck there, the easier any dealings with sharks will get.
Click here: Episode 185.
Episode 184: Right in between is not easy to deal with
Probably the most difficult surroundings for a diver when dealing with sharks is the surface. An inflated BC makes it challenging to keep the head below the surface and observe or look for sharks, likewise maintaining a vertical position without moving the legs too much. Such a situation can get worse, should there be waves or boat traffic. Having a dedicated diver who stays right below the surface until the dive boat arrives, is the best way to make the waiting period safe.
Click here: Episode 184.
Episode 183: Just let go
Spearfishing is the most exposed activity in the ocean when it comes to close encounters with sharks. Although there are pretty straight forward recommendations of what to do during an encounter, or even prevent one, headlines still pop up regularly where sharks and spearfishers had a slight disagreement.
Click here: Episode 183.
Episode 182: All of them disappear and reappear within minutes
Caribbean reef sharks are unique in many ways, but one thing is mind-boggling, entire groups of those sharks can disappear within a minute form a site and reappear shortly after, maybe one minute or two later, but from different directions.
Click here: Episode 182.
Episode 181: Who is the most flexible among the large ones out there?
Sphyrna mokarran, the so called great hammerhead, is a hammerhead species of the superlative, and that in many aspects. Probably unknown to most, it is also the most flexible species by far when it comes to being able to turn in tight spaces.
Click here: Episode 181.
Episode 180: Reference points are essential when encountering at a shark
The first moment during an interaction with a shark offers the most information. Unfortunately, this is also the moment where many people freeze because of the sheer presence of the animal. This moment can get worse, should the shark be a species that has been misrepresented by the media. Following some rules, divided by reference points, helps to get a clear(er) idea about the present moment with the animal, independent of species.
Click here: Episode 180.
Episode 179: In-transit shipments are more than a grey zone
The US is a significant transit hub for shark fins originating from Central and South American countries. Although many regulations are in place, still plenty of those fins made to their Asian destinations. Which are those US ports used for transit, what are the laws, why is it so hard to confiscate these shipments?
Click here: Episode 179.
Episode 178: Degrees and cereal boxes
Even among some shark scientists, there is the opinion that sustainable shark fishing can work. This erroneous assumption gives commercial fishing fleets carte blanche. In a time where it is more than obvious how nature is mistreated, no scientist should side with damaging parties.
Click here: Episode 178.
Episode 177: Using the OODA-loop to understand shark encounters
Whenever facing a shark, every little information helps to understand a situation better. Although the OODA-loop was developed for tactical purposes, its meaning can also be applied to shark encounters. Here, a comparison is given between the commonly used system within ADORE-SANE and OODA.
Click here: Episode 177.
Episode 176: About oceanic whitetips-again
The Brother Islands in the Red Sea had their share of bad publicity when it comes to negative interactions with oceanic whitetip sharks, and the government has not learned to improve the situation. But that does not mean one cannot enjoy hanging out with these beautiful sharks when out there.
Click here: Episode 176.
Episode 175: What if a shark species turns out to be two?
Taxonomy has its problems, especially when it comes to sharks. What if some of these shark species out there turn out to be more than one species? Could what we call ‘white sharks’ represent two or even three species? Who knows.
Click here: Episode 175.
Episode 174: Do they sniff with that thing?
Nurse sharks have so called barbels, and the prevailing opinion is that these appendices are somehow used for smell, or then to pick up vibrations from the ground. Neither makes much sense. Some possible ideas are explored.
Click here: Episode 174.
Episode 173: More scouts needed
How can we be more sensitive to nature? It does not take much, and it can start with just the simple encounter of a scout.
Click here: Episode 173.
Episode 172: The killing of sharks is still glorified
CNN posted that a kid caught a record-sized shark. Is this news worthy? It is if one is outraged against this senseless killing, but that is not the core of the posting. The whole message revolved around the glorification of just killing another shark.
Click here: Episode 172.
Episode 171: Sharks swallow humans, yeah right
Even today’s scientific papers claim that up to 25% of all shark bites are hunger-related. This assumption is entirely wrong and lacks any understanding of bit motivations.
Click here: Episode 171.
Episode 170: Argumentation is key
The problem with any discussion where two opposite parties participate is the proper foundation of one’s opinion. But what if the opposition does not have such and insists without being able to defend its idea? That is what happened in the last podium’s discussion on the pro and cons of shark feeding.
Click here: Episode 170.
Episode 169: Now that the hurricane is gone…
Hurricanes leave misery and destruction. What happens to sharks during such storms? Do they leave before? Where do they go? How can they sense a looming storm? What happens to shallow-water nursery grounds and their shark pups…?
Episode 168: What happens to all the white sharks…
Less and less white sharks show up in Guadalupe. Granted, they are still more abundant than anywhere on this planet, but most of them only show up for a few years and then are gone for good. Where do they go? Are they still alive? With a bit more sophisticated satellite tags, the answer could be found. The Mexican government gets enough park fees from divers who want to see the white sharks. So money should not be a problem. Aren’t we all curious what happens to them once they are not coming back to the island anymore?
Click here: Episode 168.
Episode 167: What is the shark’s intention
What is more important than to get an idea what a shark’s intention is when it first appears? Hardly anything. So it is crucial to get as much out of the first few seconds as possible. Level, angle, and speed are it.
Click here: Episode 167.
Episode 166: Sharks have no mean bone in them
No shark wants to hurt us; they most often merely try to figure us out using their teeth as a holding tool. It is never their intention to cause harm, a fact that is hardly ever discussed when it comes to incidents with them.
Episode 165: Old news, but still…No shark wants to hurt us when it bites but people don’t see it that way because teeth penetrate human skin, hence the shark’s intention was to hurt. In most cases, teeth are used as a tool to hold a human’s body part in position, and nothing else.
Episode 164: Inner circle–a prominent aspect most often overlooked
When it comes to shark encounters, nothing is easier to detect than the inner circle of a shark. Still, inner circles are most often on nobody’s checklist when interacting with a shark since other aspects seem more prominent. The better one understands the inner circle of a shark, the quicker one has a good grasp about the mental state of the interacting shark.
Episode 163: On the “International Shark Diving Operators’ Organisation”
One of the big problems in shark diving is that the educational value is pretty much zero, combined with a questionable safety record. Just because nothing happened so far does not mean the way sharks are shown is safe. Shark dive operators should get organized, combined with a mandatory licensing system.
Episode 162: Five shark poops for…
‘SharkWeek’ is over, and as usual not much happened. Should SharkWeek be about education? Granted, much was said and shown, but what is the actual value of it that could help the shark in the long run? Make their still fragile status in the general public less scary and turn it into a We-Have-To-Help-Them state. I hope that ‘SharkWeek’ changes its angle to ‘SharkEducationWeek’ in the years to come. The sharks would thank them.
Episode 161: Didn’t we already know that?
Over 150 scientists collaborated on a study on the global risk assessment of sharks under the footprint of fisheries and figured out what exactly? Anything we did not know? Nope, they just added a few numbers to an old and well-known problem: too many sharks are fished and killed each year. What would happen if the same scientists would finally stand up and decide to go in front of this thing? That would make a collaboration worth writing about.
Episode 160: Give idiots a place to write
Defamation of character should also be a law when it comes to animals. The latest proof is a piece written by two journalists on the seemingly dangerous bull sharks. Pure fiction but gullible readers will still believe.
Episode 159: Once it is over, it is over
Whenever a shark has bitten a person and does not immediately do so again, as it would happen during pattern compensation, the fear of the shark returning a few minutes later and biting once more hardly happens. Although relaxing after a bite is likely not happening, experience suggests that a state of calmness kicks in once the initial “rush” is over.
Episode 158: It happened, now what?
No one wants to get into an accident, but being mentally prepared for the rare event is better than having no idea how to proceed. The same is true when it comes to sharks.
Episode 157: Shark-Get out of the water! No, wait, what?
Should a shark show interest in you, never, ever, back off and try to reach the shore. Stay put, go vertical, pivot, observe, and wait, and THEN act then follow the rules. Remember: always integrate the shark in your decision making.
Episode 156: Shark researchers kill sharks for the sake of data collecting
What is more despicable than allowing animals to die because one poses a rather lame scientific question? In a world where shark conservation is more important than ever, some shark scientists still do not care.
Episode 155: Divers are ascending, and a bunch of sharks is showing up
Sharks can show up during an ascent. One always has then to stop ascending, remain at the same level as the sharks, go vertical, and face to face with his or her dive buddy and start pivoting together. Do not improvise; just follow the rules.
Episode 154: Worldwide bites are decreasing, against what some scientists say
Combine the most appropriate statistical modeling with the best approach on how to weigh shark bites, and one gets a straightforward answer: the world’s shark bites are decreasing. Good news for the sharks’ reputations but it also means that their populations are dwindling to the extent that it even reflects in their bite rates.
Episode 153: Who “asked” first, the shark or the sharksucker?
Although the relationship between a shark, the client, and a sharksucker, the cleaner, looks straight forward, its origin is less so. Furthermore, for a shark to detect food stuck between its teeth, it must possess a delicate system that can perceive the slight shift between teeth next to each other. This availability is remarkable considering the often rather powerful use of shark teeth when clamping down.
Episode 152: And then there is the blacktip…
One of the most ignored shark species is the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus. Unfortunately so, since these buggers are a blast. They are rather small but full of life and a cockiness that has no comparison. This species is very refreshing to hang out with but be aware, wherever you find one, don’t assume it acts or reacts the same way as it did before with you elsewhere.
Episode 151: Nature can do well without us
“Think globally, act locally” is a compelling message when it comes to the conservation and protection of animals and their surroundings. The more people take responsibility; the more significant the impact will be. As insignificant as an act may seem when supporting the cause, even the smallest bit will have a broader reach than just the immediate area where it initially happened.
Episode 150: What’s left is telepathy?
Despite the commonly accepted forms of communications among sharks, there are still too many unanswerable questions. One form has not yet been considered: telepathy. Although this seems far-fetched, a quick summary is given why this form of information exchange should not be rejected at this moment.
Episode 149: It is not just about the writing of a sharkbook…
Each year, plenty of people feel the urge to write a book on sharks, independently if they are experts or not. The less qualified an author, the more likely old mistakes will find their ways back (once more) into their book. Even so, the internet is more present than ever, books are still an essential educational tool, and as such should be as accurate and updated as possible without re-emphasizing old mistakes. To that extent, a publishing house’s task is not just to print and spread but also to test for accuracy. A bonafide, external shark expert on the issue could save the company a lot of money and face, too, should the author not have been really up to par with the subject, and that includes erroneous assumptions previously made on sharks, as well as knowing the latest research in this particular field.
Episode 148: Going back was never a question
Many people asked about Erich Ritter’s motivation to go back in the water after his near kill by a bull shark on April 9, 2002. Some of the thoughts he had to return to the same spot where it happened and start over again, are described.
Episode 147: Who was to blame on April 9, 2002
It is the most famous shark bite ever aired on TV; a bull shark bites the calf of Erich Ritter. Many stories circulated how it could have happened. Here, I talk about this dark day, and what truly happened.
Episode 146: Scientific longlining is wrong, too
For too long scientists got away with catching sharks using longlining. A method that kills sharks for the sake of science is wrong. What are the alternatives? Well, not that many but they sure would put everything in perspective.
Episode 145: ebay could make a difference
Search for “shark jaws” on ebay’s website, and a large number of jaws pop up. Why does ebay, a large multinational e-commerce corporation with headquarters in the US, allow the sale of such animal parts? Because the sale of shark jaws is still legal? On there one finds even white shark jaws, a species that is on the CITES Appendix II list. It cannot be that jaws of a shark species that is likely already biologically extinct, are still be traded. It would be prudent for ebay to rethink its policy of selling shark jaws.nbsp]
Episode 144: Is there an actual giraffe whisperer?
In the mid-90s when the term “shark whisperer” was coined by Discovery Channel they created something rather special. The title was associated with shark science, especially shark-human interaction. Since then, the “title” moved from one shark person to the next, all depending who the new TV darling was. The label completely lost its charm and is nowadays an insult than an honor. So what comes next?nbsp]
Episode 143: The long way to establish a behavior
The behavioral repertoire of sharks is pretty short compared to other animal groups. That does not mean that there are only a few behaviors known, not at all, but in order to get a shark behavior established, one must follow specific rules and hope for the acceptance of anonymous reviewers. However, there are other problems as well. The simplest and easiest way to get a shark behavior known is through video websites and follow the old saying, the most straightforward answer is the most likely one.
Episode 142: Let the other side take over
Interacting with a shark is always a two-part process. First, the triage needs to establish an understanding of the situation and what factors influence the scenario the most, and then a connection should be built to the animal close to us. This second part is not always attainable, but with enough practice and an open mind, it can be achieved. Once this stage is established, any interaction will open up a completely new world with the shark in front of or around you.
Episode 141: Forget that it is a white shark
Whenever a shark approaches you, it does not matter what species it is, but solely that it is a shark. Starting to think about the species takes away from your analytical mind of what influences the situation, of what the shark does, etc. and all that remains is, OMG it is an e.g., white shark. No matter what, nature did not teach us how to react when a particular shark species approaches us, so do not follow your gut feeling that is–for sure–influenced of what you know about the species from TV, the internet… but stay with the rules.
Episode: Using “Ritter Rules” to safely face a shark
The less one has to wing an interaction with a shark, the safer the encounter will be. Following Face-Guide-Push-Move will always have the desired effect, independently of the person’s water activity.
Episode 139: Reading a shark word by word
Whenever facing a shark, our well-established tick list at SharkSchool should be used to get the maximum out of an upcoming interaction. Not will following rules guarantee that all essential aspects are covered, it will also keep emotions under control. The more one can focus on the interaction at hand; the more one stays in control of the encounter.
Episode 138: Inviting lay people to do a professional’s job
The story of the “Brother Islands” incidents in the Red Sea is not over yet. Some NGOs, together with Egyptian governmental agencies decided to do a workshop on how to safely interact with sharks. Although a good idea, they failed to invite experts on the issue and handed the “shark stuff” to a very dubious shark organization that is completely made up of lay people. One can only hope that no oceanic whitetip shark shows up next season at the “Brothers” otherwise some people have to answer some ugly questions.
Episode 137: Doing their thing close to me
Bull sharks have one of the worst reputations when it comes to sharks. That their image does not reflect the truth, goes without saying. So it should not come as a surprise, once they are relaxed, that they allow us to be very close when doing their thing. The better we know them, the easier we can try to change their false image. It may still be time for species like the bull shark but even for that one, time is running out.
Episode 136: More carbon dioxide likely leads to fewer shark pups
Most nursery grounds for sharks are in the shallows for one main reason, to protect the pups from larger sharks. But what happens when sea levels keep going up making those nursery grounds more accessible to larger sharks?
Episode 135: Make it or break it
When it comes to hurting animals, sportfishermen are second to none, especially when dealing with sharks. More often than not, sharks are seen with broken or injured jaws to the extent that their likelihood to survive is very much limited. These wounds are caused by sportfishermen who try to rip the hook out of a shark’s mouth once they realize that they do not have a fish on their hooks. Proper procedure would be to bring the shark along the boat, remove the hook, or at least cut the line as close to the hook as possible. However, as long as the line strength is not reduced, or smaller hooks used, sharks with injured lower jaws will remain a common sight.
Episode 134: Beautiful and not dangerous
An unbelievable encounter with a huge white shark just happened in Hawaii. The large animal popped up next to a group of snorkelers and interacted with them for hours. How incredible is that? A wonderful and mind-boggling moment. Unfortunately, some news stations could not accept the beauty and harmony but had to look for anything negative. Sometimes, one wonders…
Episode 133: Shore fishing for sharks, another criminal act against nature
Shore fishing for sharks is another destructive fishing activity and should be banned, once and for all. Since it will not likely happen, it should at least be restricted and controlled to the extent that even the smallest disregard to the newly set regulations would end in hefty fines and jail time.
Episode 132: When national waters should be taken away.
The oceans belong to no one. So any country that feels it can do whatever they want within their waters, be it polluting it or overfishing their shark or bony fish populations, should be allowed to be invaded and their practices be stopped without legal repercussions from other governments. Any criminal act against nature within a country’s territorial waters must be punished by, e.g. implementing embargoes, jail time of the responsible parties (e.g., premier ministers, presidents…) and paying fines where the amounts of money then are used to reverse the damage done to nature and/or their inhabitants.
Episode 131: Without the “pubs” for pups we have no chance
Nursery grounds are the most critical habitats for sharks. While growing up around and in them, they find food and shelter, and the time to learn and hone skills. Without these grounds, survival for young sharks are not just questioned but pretty much impossible. More emphasis must be given to find and protect these habitats. One way to pursue would be tagging pregnant females.
Episode 130: Does cornering sharks by divers really exist?
Although cornering sharks by divers is an often heard situation, the question must be raised if divers indeed corner sharks, and if so, can the response by the sharks be predicted? From an evolutionary viewpoint, this scenario raises many questions, and its actual existence, where divers are considered, is questionable.
Episode 129: Houston, we don’t have a problem!
Australia feels that they have a “shark problem” that they cannot get a handle on. There is much talk about netting beaches, putting up electronic repellents or culling more sharks. All that seems to thrive is poor journalism of a problem that does not exist. How come that no one is talking about comparing these bites, and look for clues? As long as the agencies in charge do not look for clues that may explain the seemingly increase of bites, all that remains is a playground for the journalists to speculate which ends up in one, and one way only, increased fear or sharks among the general public.
Episode 128: Ever heard of “MC OAP?”
Whenever out there facing sharks, it is crucial to try to understand what these animals think and “where they come from” when checking us out. MC OAP–Mental Capacity Oriented Animal Perspective–focuses on precisely that. To get a better grasp at the situation one finds oneself in, a person should try to see the very situation from the shark’s viewpoint, combined with its likely brain power.
Episode 127: Visualization, an essential shark interaction tool
Encounters with sharks are rare, and so most encounters will take place in a diver’s mind. However, visualizing a scenario with a shark over and over will make it less stressful when then an actual encounter happens. So even divers that can’t participate in workshops on shark-human interaction can improve their skills by reading about shark encounters and while doing so should simultaneously visualize the very scenario. Visualizing shark encounters is a potent tool in preparation for the real event.
Episode 126: Playing the blame game.
Another incident happened at the Brother Islands, Egypt, in the Red Sea, and the blame goes from the shark to the diver, to the guides. At the end, all that matters is that the incident could have been prevented, but neither guides know how to face a shark, nor their clients. Granted, the people most could make a difference are the guides of the liveaboards that go out to the Brothers. It should be an easy task to teach them, but it isn’t. So, as long as guides do not teach proper technique of how to face an approaching shark, these incidents will keep happening.
Episode 125: What is it with all the confusing common shark names?
Some shark species carry different common names, depending on where one looks for them, others only have a single name but are confused with other species that carry similar names. Then there are the shark species which carry the word “great” in the name, and so on. Is there a way to plow through all this confusion, or does one have to accept it?
Episode 124: Do sharks that tend to bite share a particular personality?
Sharks that tend to bite a person approach more direct, overstep the inner threshold right away, and get close during their first passing. It seems that these sharks, independent of species, have a much lower threshold to approach new things. Another feature is their eyes. When looking at them during this first encounter, these eyes do not seem to show the typical eye roll but more of a stare for as long as possible until the animal passed the diver for good.
Episode 123: Why do abalone divers get bitten so often
When it comes to activities and their exposure to sharks regarding incidents, abalone divers are up there. What is it that attracts sharks, in this case predominantly white sharks, to the divers. The answer likely lays in the sounds produced when prying off these snails from the rocks. However, other reasons come to mind as well. So, are there ways to reduce the attractiveness of this activity?
Episode 122: Why the shark is not aggressive, and the cat is not dumb
Very often, an animal comes across a certain way that will then be described with human characteristics. Such a description is called anthropomorphism: giving human characteristics or behaviors to an animal, or an object. However, one should be very careful when doing so since the mental state of an animal, or whatever is described, with such a label is likely unknown. Quite often a more neutral term to describe the animal is more appropriate.
Episode 121: Rape among sharks is a fact
For years, scientists labeled the wounds sharks create during mating ‘mating scars,’ and it was just assumed they are part of regular copulation between males and females. However, these scars were always rare, and nobody wondered why that was. We asked that question and found the reason behind it: rape. Here, an overview is given, how rape was determined, and what that means for the image of sharks.